Increase water/fluid intake to a minimum of 3-4 liter’s a day (for women) or 4-5 liter’s a day (for men).
In case of any extra fluid losses (caused by heavy sweating due to exercise and/or hot, humid climate, or diarrhoea/vomiting)
Water intake must also be well-distributed throughout the day to ensure that the urine is dilute and pale yellow, with a regular frequency of urination.
Plain water or fluids with electrolytes, lime water, coconut water, buttermilk, or alkaline water options.
Beverages containing concentrated sources of sugar (e.g.. soft drinks, colas, fruit juices, sherbets) must not be included.
Avoid alcohol, smoking, and caffeine-containing beverages e.g. tea, coffee, and energy drinks containing caffeine, as they act as dehydrating agent.
Avoid high-oxalate foods such as:
Chocolates: chocolate syrup, cocoa chocolate milk or any foods containing chocolate or cocoa powder.
Certain nuts (e.g., almonds, cashew, walnuts, peanuts, pecan nuts) and oilseeds (e.g., pumpkin seeds). Also limit intake of coconut, sesame seeds, and sunflower seeds.
Certain vegetables e.g., spinach, rhubarb, beets, ladyfinger, bamboo shoots, yams, potato, sweet potato, turnip, fava beans, olives, parsnip, carrots, cooked celery, collards greens, eggplant, kale, leeks, parsley, green peppers, green chili, zucchini, artichoke, asparagus, French beans.
Certain fruits e.g., raspberries, orange, dates, kiwi, avocados, grapefruit, purple grapes, dried figs, pineapple, tangerine, apple (with skin) and certain berries (e.g., cranberries, strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, gooseberries). Avoid fruit juices made from any of the above fruits.
Certain high-fiber cereals e.g., rice bran, buckwheat, brown rice flour, cooked millets, cornmeal, and whole wheat flour.
Certain pulses e.g., Baked beans, navy beans and kidney beans)
Soya products such as: Soya milk, tofu, miso, soya flour, soya protein supplement, soya sauce
Maintain a good calcium Intake, it is low calcium intake (and NOT high calcium intake) that increases the risk of forming kidney stones.
Calcium-rich foods must be “paired” with oxalate foods, to ensure better binding and excretion of oxalate. For example: Milk products can be added to meals containing vegetables/fruits/ cereals with moderate-to-high oxalate content.
Calcium citrate supplement (preferably also containing magnesium) can also be added with a meal containing moderate-to-high oxalate foods (e.g. lunch or dinner) to further help in oxalate binding and excretion.
Cut down sodium intake.For example: adding lime to food rather than salt.
Reduce serum uric acid levels by avoiding high-purine foods such as pulses, soya, and non-vegetarian foods e.g. fish, seafood, organ meats, chicken & other meats. Alcoholic beverages (especially beer) are also high in purine and must be strictly avoided.
Avoid excess Vitamin C Supplements.
Avoid factors that may make the urine acidic by avoiding Excess animal meats and milk products and balance it with a good intake of fruits and vegetables that make urine alkaline.
Vegan proteins that contain oxalate must also be avoided.
Soft drinks and cola drinks must be strictly avoided due to their high phosphoric acid content.
Care must be taken to overcome obesity, and maintain ideal body weight.
Include Urinary alkalinizers, that help to reduce the acidity of the urine and make it alkaline.
- The citric acid, present in lime/lemons can be squeezed on food as a seasoning. Lime water can be included as part of fluid intake.
- Apple cider vinegar (ACV) contains acetic acid, 1-2 tbsp (15-30ml) diluted with 1 glass of water x 2-3 times a day.
- Baking Soda, ½ tsp baking soda, 1 time in a day.
Barley water, can be made by boiling barley grains in water, for 30 mins, and straining the water. Ginger, cinnamon, and/or lime can also be added, 2-3 cups a day.